Publications

Our Research

Click the area of research below to expand and learn more about our current and past focuses.

Teacher Efficacy
Differentiated Instruction in Intermediate Mathematics
Use of Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classrooms
Collaborative Action Research in Mathematics
Use of Learning Objects to Support Fractions Understanding
Increasing Teacher and Student Understanding of Patterning and Algebra

Publications

Click the area of research below to jump to the publication listing.

Quick Links
Math and Technology
FractionsMath for Young ChildrenProfessional Learning ModelsTeacher EfficacyResearch MethodsMath CommunicationStudent AchievementPublished BooksReportsOther Publications

Math and Technology

Technology in the Mathematics Classroom:
Harnessing the Learning Potential of Interactive Whiteboards
Bruce, C. (2012). Technology in the Mathematics Classroom: Harnessing the Learning Potential of Interactive Whiteboards. Research into Practice: Ontario Association of Deans of Education. Research Monograph # 38, March, 1-4.
>Download Monograph

Revealing significant learning moments with interactive whiteboards in mathematics
Bruce, C., McPherson, R. & Sabbati, M. & Flynn, T. (2011). Revealing significant learning moments with interactive whiteboards in mathematics. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 45(4), 433-454.
>View Abstract

Supporting students with learning disabilities to explore linear relationships
using on-line learning objects.

Beatty, R. & Bruce, C. (2012). Supporting students with learning disabilities to explore linear relationships using on-line learning objects. Pensamiento Numerico y Algebraico 7(1).
>Download Journal

The gender confidence gap in junior high school mathematics: Gender differences
in student belief-achievement relationships

Ross, J., Scott, G. & Bruce, C. (2011). The gender confidence gap in junior high school mathematics: Gender differences in student belief-achievement relationships. (School Science and Mathematics)

Sequencing Computer-Assisted Learning of Transformations of Trigonometric Functions
Ross, J., Bruce, C., & Sibbald, T. (2011). Sequencing Computer-Assisted Learning of Transformations of Trigonometric Functions. Teaching Mathematics and Its Applications, Oxford Press.
>View Abstract

Technology-supported Instruction in the Mathematics Classroom
Ross, J. & Bruce, C. (2011). Technology-supported Instruction in the Mathematics Classroom. In Robyn Gillies (Ed.) Pedagogy: New Developments in the Learning Sciences. New York: Nova Science Publishing.
>View Book Online

Collaborative Inquiry and Learning in Mathematics
Bruce, C. & Ross, J. (2010). Collaborative Inquiry and Learning in Mathematics: Year 1 research review, Inspire Series: Professional On-line Publication of the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat.
>View Video

Interactive whiteboard use in math classrooms: Grounding theory in practice
Bruce, C., Flynn, T., Ladky, M. (2009). Interactive whiteboard use in math classrooms: Grounding theory in practice.
>Download Poster

Conditions for Effective Use of Interactive On-line Learning Objects:
The case of a fractions computer-based learning sequence

Bruce, C. & Ross, J.A. (2009). Conditions for Effective Use of Interactive On-line Learning Objects: The case of a fractions computer-based learning sequence. Journal of Education.
>View Journal /

Conditions for Effective Use of Interactive On-line Learning Objects: The case of a fractions computer-based learning sequence

Students are challenged when learning fractions and problems often persist into adulthood. Teachers may find it difficult to remediate student misconceptions in the busy classroom, particularly when the concept is as challenging as fractions has proven to be. We theorized that a technology-based learning resource could provide the sequencing and scaffolding teachers might have difficulty providing. A development team of teachers, researchers and educational software programmers designed five sets of fractions activities in the form of learning objects, called CLIPS. As part of a larger mixed-methods study, 36 observations as well as interviews were conducted in four classrooms, grades 7-10. Four students were selected by their teachers for CLIPS use from each of these four classrooms because the students were experiencing difficulty with fractions concepts. CLIPS use contributed to student achievement, provided the conditions enabled an effective learning environment and students experienced the full sequence of tasks in the CLIPS. In this article we describe the conditions that enabled student success. Three interacting contexts affected successful use of CLIPS: technological contexts (such as access to computers with audio), teaching contexts (such as introductory activities that prepared students for the CLIPS activities) and student contexts (such as the level of student confidence and opportunities to communicate to a peer). The study illustrates how a research-based set of learning objects can be effective and provides guidelines to consider when using learning objects to enhance mathematics programs.

Student Achievement Effects of Technology-Supported Remediation
of Understanding of Fractions

Ross, J.A., Ford, J., Bruce, C. (2009). Student Achievement Effects of Technology-Supported Remediation of Understanding of Fractions.
>Download Article /

Student Achievement Effects of Technology-Supported Remediation of Understanding of Fractions

Students have difficulty learning fractions and problems in understanding fractions persist into adulthood, with moderate to severe consequences for everyday and occupational decision-making. Remediation of student misconceptions is hampered by deficiencies in teachers’ knowledge of the discipline and pedagogical content knowledge. We theorized that a technology resource could provide the sequencing and scaffolding that teachers might have difficulty providing. Five sets of learning objects, called CLIPS, were developed to provide remediation on fraction concepts.
In this article we describe one stage in a research program to develop, implement and evaluate CLIPS. Two studies were conducted. In the first, 14 grade 7-10 classrooms were randomly assigned, within schools, to early and late treatment conditions. A pre-post, delayed treatment design found that that CLIPS had no effect on achievement for the Early Treatment group due to unforeseen implementation problems. These hardware and software issues were mitigated in the late treatment in which CLIPS contributed to student achievement (Cohen’s d=.30).
Study 2 was a pre-post, single group replication involving 18 grade 7 classrooms. The independent variable was the number of CLIPS completed. Completion of all five CLIPS contributed to higher student achievement: Cohen’s d=.53, compared to students who completed none (d=.00)or 1-4 CLIPS (d=.02).

The two studies indicate that a research-based set of learning objects is effective when the full program is implemented. Incomplete sequences deprive students of instruction in one or more constructs linked to other key ideas in the conceptual map and reduce the amount of practice required to remediate student misconceptions.


Using a technology-based learning tool to differentiate instruction Factors
influencing student assignment to multi-media learning objects in mathematics
Sibbald, T., Ross, J., Bruce, C., (2009). Using a technology-based learning tool to differentiate instruction Factors influencing student assignment to multi-media learning objects in mathematics.
>Download Article /

Using a technology-based learning tool to differentiate instruction Factors influencing student assignment to multi-media learning objects in mathematics

Previous research has examined factors influencing teacher decisions to integrate technology using between-teacher designs. This study used a within-teacher design to compare students who were assigned multi-media learning objects for learning fractions with students taught by the same teachers who were not assigned to the technology. There were two conditions: (1) teachers were asked to limit the number of assigned students to 25% of their class (N=375 grade 7-10 students) and (2) teachers could assign as many students as they wanted (N=149 grade 7 students). In the constrained decision setting, students assigned to the technology were more likely than students not assigned to score lower on a fractions achievement test, have dysfunctional attitudes toward mathematics learning, have low self-efficacy, exert low effort, and be male. In the unconstrained decision setting 70% of students were assigned the technology and the only statistically significant predictor was prior achievement. Teachers’ criteria were intuitively sensible and congruent with research identifying correlates of mathematics achievement and comfort with technology. The results indicate that the technology contributed to teachers’ ability to differentiate instruction, with the important proviso that teachers appeared to be unaware of the opportunity cost of their decisions.

Characteristics of students assigned to technology-based instruction
Ross, J. Sibbald, T. & Bruce, C. (2009). Characteristics of students assigned to technology-based instruction. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 25, 562-573.
>View Journal

Needs assessment for the development of learning objects
Ross, J.A., Ford, J. & Bruce, C. (2007). Needs assessment for the development of learning objects. Alberta Journal of Educational Research 53(4).
>View Journal

The contribution of technology to the implementation of mathematics
education reform: Case studies of grade 1-3 teachers

Ross, J.A., Hogaboam-Gray, A., McDougall, D., & Bruce, C. (2002). The contribution of technology to the implementation of mathematics education reform: Case studies of grade 1-3 teachers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 26(1), 123-140.
>View Journal

Fractions

Foundations to Learning and Teaching Fractions: Addition and Subtraction.
Bruce, C., Chang, D., Flynn, T., Yearley, S. Foundations to Learning and Teaching Fractions: Addition and Subtraction. Literature Review submitted to the Curriculum and Assessment Branch, Ontario Ministry of Education. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. June 21, 2013.
>Download Literature Review

Which is Greater: One Half or Two Fourths? An Examination of How
Two Grade 1 Students Negotiate Meaning

Bruce, C., Flynn, T. (2011) Which is Greater: One Half or Two Fourths? An Examination of How Two Grade 1 Students Negotiating Meaning. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, Vol. 11, No.4, October 2011.
>Download Article

Math for Young Children

Mathematics for Young Children: Literature Review
Bruce, C., Flynn, T. & Moss, J. (2012). Mathematics for Young Children: Literature Review. Comprehensive literature review submitted to the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat, Ontario Ministry of Education. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. June 25, 2012.
>Download Literature Review

Professional Learning Models

Lead Teachers in Collaborative Action Research: Perceptions of Role and Responsibility
Bruce, C., Jarvis, D., Flynn, T. & Brock, E. (2012). Lead Teachers in Collaborative Action Research: Perceptions of Role and Responsibility. Canadian Journal of Action Research 12 (3), 29-46.
>View Journal

Assessing a research/professional development model in patterning and algebra
Beatty, R. & Bruce, C. (2011). Assessing a research/professional development model in patterning and algebra. In Bednarz, N., Fiorentini, D. & Huang, R. (Eds.), International Approaches to Professional Development for Mathematics Teachers. University of Ottawa Press.
>View Book Information

What’s going on backstage? Revealing the work of lesson study
Bruce, C. & Ladky, M. (2011). What’s going on backstage? Revealing the work of lesson study. In Hart, L., Alston, A., & Murata, A. (Eds.), Learning Together: Lesson-study research and practice in mathematics education. Springer Press.
>View Book Information

Examining the impact of participant roles on collaborative action research
Bruce, C., Flynn, T, & Peterson, S. (2011). Examining the impact of participant roles on collaborative action research: a cross-case analysis,(Educational Action Research)
>Download Journal

Lesson Study theoretical framework
Bruce, C. & Ladky, M. & Flynn, T., (2010). Lesson Study theoretical framework. In Professionally Speaking.
>View Article

Reasoning Algebraically with Young Children
Bruce, C., Moher, L, & Flynn, T. (2010) Reasoning Algebraically with Young Children. Teaching Children Mathematics focus issue on early Algebra (NCTM)

The relationship between collaborative action research and leadership
Bruce, C. (2010). The relationship between collaborative action research and leadership. In Collaborative Action Research: Effects of teacher-directed research in Ontario schools. Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario Press: Toronto.

The ripple effect of mathematics lesson study: One school story
Flynn, T., Hedges, H., Bruce, C. (2009). The ripple effect of mathematics lesson study: One school story
>Download Article

The nature of lesson study in Ontario Schools – a close examination of the lesson study cycle
Bruce, C., Ladky, M. (2009). The nature of lesson study in Ontario Schools – a close examination of the lesson study cycle.
>Download Article

Teacher self-assessment: A mechanism for facilitating professional growth
Ross, J.A., & Bruce, C. (2007). Teacher self-assessment: A mechanism for facilitating professional growth. Teaching and Teacher Education 23(2), 146-159.
>View Journal

Teacher Efficacy

Mathematics Teacher Survey (Ross & Bruce, 2009)
Click HERE for survey items.

The effects of sustained classroom-embedded teacher professional learning on

teacher efficacy and related student achievement
Bruce, C., Esmonde, I., Ross, J., & Gookie, L., Beatty, R. (2010). The effects of sustained classroom-embedded teacher professional learning on teacher efficacy and related student achievement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26 (8).
>View Article

A Model for increasing reform implementation and teacher efficacy
Bruce, C. & Ross, J.A. (2008). A Model for increasing reform implementation and teacher efficacy: Teacher peer coaching in grade 3 and 6 mathematics. Canadian Journal of Education.
>Download Article /

A Model for Increasing Reform Implementation and Teacher Efficacy: Teacher Peer Coaching in Grade 3 and 6 Mathematics
This study examined the effects of peer coaching on mathematics teaching practices and teacher beliefs about their capacity to impact student learning. Twelve teachers in grades 3 and 6 participated in a brief but intensive professional development program over six months. The program focused on effective math teaching strategies and peer coaching opportunities. Data sources included classroom observations, teacher self-assessments, interviews, and field notes. Data were analysed using a two level qualitative coding strategy with multiple interpreters. Findings showed that teachers implemented key strategies for effective math teaching, especially for facilitating student interaction and improving the quality of tasks assigned.

 

Professional development effects on teacher efficacy: Results of a randomized experiment
Ross, J.A., & Bruce, C. (2007). Professional development effects on teacher efficacy: Results of a randomized experiment. Journal of Educational Research 101(1), 50-60.

Teacher self-assessment: A mechanism for facilitating professional growth
Ross, J.A., & Bruce, C. (2007). Teacher self-assessment: A mechanism for facilitating professional growth. Teaching and Teacher Education 23(2), 146-159.
>View Article /

Teacher self-assessment: A mechanism for facilitating professional growth

Self-assessment is a powerful technique for improving achievement. In this article we outline a theory of teacher change that links self-assessment by teachers to their professional growth. This theory provides avenues for peers and change agents to influence teacher practice. We apply the theory to change in mathematics teaching and report an explanatory case study in which use of the self-assessment tool, in combination with other elements, contributed to change in the instructional practice of a grade 8 mathematics teacher. Provision of a self-assessment tool contributed to teacher growth by: (1) influencing the teacher’s definition of excellence in teaching and increasing his ability to recognize mastery experiences; (2) helping the teacher select improvement goals by providing him with clear standards of teaching, opportunities to find gaps between desired and actual practices, and a menu of options for action; (3) facilitating communication with the teacher’s peer; and (4) increasing the influence of external change agents on teacher practice. The study argues that providing a self-assessment tool is a constructive strategy for improving the effectiveness of in-service provided it is bundled with other professional growth strategies: peer coaching, observation by external change agents, and focused input on teaching strategies.

Research Methods

Quantitative inquiry into collaborative action research: Measuring teacher benefits
Ross, J. & Bruce, C. (June 2012). Quantitative inquiry into collaborative action research: Measuring teacher benefits. Teacher Development.

Assessing a research/professional development model in patterning and algebra
Beatty, R. & Bruce, C. (2011). Assessing a research/professional development model in patterning and algebra. In Bednarz, N., Fiorentini, D. & Huang, R. (Eds.), International Approaches to Professional Development for Mathematics Teachers. University of Ottawa Press.
>View Book Information

Questions arising about emergence, data collection and its interaction
with analysis in a grounded theory study
Bruce, C. (2007). Questions arising about emergence, data collection and its interaction with analysis in a grounded theory study. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 6(1).
>Download Article

Math Communication

Which is greater: One half or two fourths? An examination of how
two Grade 1 students negotiate meaning
Bruce, C. & Flynn, T. (2011). Which is greater: One half or two fourths? An examination of how two Grade 1 students negotiate meaning. Canadian Journal for Studies in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 11(4), 309–327
>View Journal

Teaching mathematics to special needs students: Who is at risk?
Bruce, C., Theis, L & Lessard, G. (submitted September, 2010). Teaching mathematics to special needs students: Who is at risk?, In P. Llilledaj (Ed.), Canadian Mathematics Educators Study Group Annual Conference Proceedings.

Student interaction in the math classroom: Stealing ideas or building Understanding?
Bruce, C. (2007). Student interaction in the math classroom: Stealing ideas or building Understanding? Research into Practice: Ontario Association of Deans of Education. Research Monograph # 1 (premier edition), 1-4.
>Download Monograph

The impact of a professional development program on student
achievement in grade 6 mathematics

Ross, J. A., Bruce, C., & Hogaboam-Gray, A. (2006). The impact of a professional development program on student achievement in grade 6 mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 551-577.
>View Journal

Student Achievement

The gender confidence gap in junior high school mathematics:
Gender differences in student belief-achievement relationships
Ross, J., Scott, G. & Bruce, C. (2012). The gender confidence gap in junior high school mathematics: Gender differences in student belief-achievement relationships. School Science and Mathematics, 112(5), 278-288.
>View Article

External review of collaborative inquiry and learning in mathematics
Bruce, C.D. & Ross, J.A. (August 2010). External review of collaborative inquiry and learning in mathematics. Final report submitted to the Ontario Ministry of Education. Peterborough, ON: Trent University (132 pages).

Student achievement effects of technology supported remediation of understanding of fractions
Ross, J. & Bruce, C. (2009). Student achievement effects of technology supported remediation of understanding of fractions. International Journal of Mathematics Education in Science and Technology, 40(6), 713-727.
>View Article

The impact of a professional development program on student
achievement in grade 6 mathematics

Ross, J. A., Bruce, C., & Hogaboam-Gray, A. (2006). The impact of a professional development program on student achievement in grade 6 mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 551-577.
>View Journal

Published Books

Linear Relationships: From Patterns to Algebra
Beatty, R. & Bruce, C. (2012) Linear Relationships: From Patterns to Algebra. Toronto: Nelson Publications, Canada.
>View Book Information

ISBN-13: 9780176519698 (1 Research and 1 Practice Text)
ISBN-13: 9780176519674 (DVD)

Reports

Building Capacity in Technology Use through Research in Lesson Study.
>Download Report

Connecting Practice and Research: Clips Project Final Report to the Ontario Ministry of Education.
>Download Report

Other Publications

Ontario Math Education Research Read More

TMERC YouTube Channel

Log on and subscribe to the TMERC YouTube Channel and stay up-to-date with the latest videos from the field!

Share this page!

From Patterns to Algebra

Dr. Cathy Bruce and Dr. Ruth Beatty bring you 22 lessons from patterning to algebra, available this spring through Nelson Education. Included is a DVD of videos and SmartBoard lessons created by Rich McPherson. 'Read More' for information about this amazing new resource for Grades 4 through 10, and how you can get your own copy.

Read More

Meet Catherine D. Bruce

Catherine BruceFind out more about Cathy,
an experienced speaker, researcher, educator, and key member of the TMERC team.
Trent University

Read More

Our Partnerships